Salomatin Aleksey Yur'evich, Doctor of juridical sciences, doctor of historical sciences, professor, head of sub-department state and law theory and political science, director of the Center of Comparative Legal Policy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Nakvakina Ekaterina Vladimirovna, Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, sub-department state and law theory and political science, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. Europe with its multitude of states has numerous and different systems of justice. This phenomenon is of high interest for researches, politicians and justices from theoretical and practical points of view. How to explain this difference? What experience may be applied from foreign systems to our system?
Materials and methods. The structure of the court system in EU countries was studied. The authors used a multi-factorial analysis. Courts of different instances were considered from bottom to top levels. Specialized branches and specialized courts were also analyzed.
Results. Germany represents the most differentiated model of justice with 5 branches and constitutional courts, not composing a unilateral branch. France is famous with its dual structure with common and administrative courts. Italy and Spain to some exten use French experience of court organization. Scandinavian countries have simple structure of courts without needless ambitions and controlled by society. And English system is outmoded, fragmented and anachronic.
Conclusions. According to the public opinion research conducted in 2012, the most trusted are courts of Scandinavian countries, Switzerland and Germany. It seems that Scandinavian simplicity and public control for judges is a good thing for citizens. This idea is necessary to take into account when reforming the Russian court system and refusing from creation of additional court branches and courts.
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